Friday, October 29, 2010

#472 Cuba...Thanks Alain!

This set of 2 stamps was issued this year celebrating 20 years of La Colmenita (the Small Beehive),the only Cuban theater company made up by children.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

#471 France...Thanks Yves!

The stamp in the middle is from 2010 the second series of Love France celebrating the flavours of French regions showing Corsica national food: a whey cheese named Brocciu,which is produced from sheep milk or goat milk.

#470 United Kingdom...Thanks Barry!

The 78p stamp was issued in 2008 marking the centenary of the birth of Ian Lancaster Fleming on 28th May 1908,who is famous for creating the James Bond character and novels.The stamp features the original Cape cover, as well as three others from later paperback editions by Pan, Jove and Penguin of the novel From Russia with Love.

The 19p stamp was issued in 1989 for the Food and Farming Year.

#469 Latvia...Thanks Juris!

#468 Israel...Thanks Stefan!

The 4.65s stamp is from 1996 Jewish Composer series honoring Felix Mendelssohn.

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born, and generally known in English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn (3 February 1809 – 4 November 1847) was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.

The grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix was born into a notable Jewish family, although he himself was brought up initially without religion, and later as a Lutheran Christian. He was recognized early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his abilities. Indeed his father was disinclined to allow Felix to follow a musical career until it became clear that he intended seriously to dedicate himself to it.

Early success in Germany was followed by travel throughout Europe; Mendelssohn was particularly well-received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there (during which many of his major works were premiered) form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes however set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The University of Music and Theatre Leipzig, which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook.

Mendelssohn's work includes symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano and chamber music. He also had an important role in the revival of interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical tastes and antisemitism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his creative originality is now being recognized and re-evaluated. He is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

#467 Peru...Thanks Carlos!

The s/.2 stamp on the top was issued in 2009 celebrating 400 years of Archdiocese of Arequipa,which was created by The Bula of Pope Paul V in 1609,separating it from the one in Cusco.

The s/.5.50 stamp below was issued in 2008 commemorating 450 years of the Monastery of Santa Clara in Cusco.

The Santa Clara Monastery belongs to the Clarists, female branch of the Franciscan order, appeared in 1549 under the protection of the secular town hall of Cusco. At the beginning, it was a house for lay sisters that sheltered half breed orphan women and native girls descending from the Incas. It was situated in the square of Chaquilchaca. In 1556, it moved to the house of the conqueror Luis Geronimo de Cabrera, in the current square of the "Nazarenas". It stayed there until 1622 when the current church built in the public walk was finished.

#466 Poland...Thanks Antoni!

#465 Romania...Thanks Andra!

Sunday, October 24, 2010

#464 Luxembourg...Thanks Artoro!

The 0.90€ stamp was issued in 2010 commemorating 100th Anniversary of death of Jean Soupert who was a Luxembourgian rosarian known for his breeding of rose cultivars.

#463 Latvia...Thanks Juris!

Title:History of Latvia Railway.
Date of issue:05.08.2010

#462 Mauritius...Thanks David!

The Rs30 stamp was issued on 20 August 2010 for the World Expo Shanghai 2010 depicting the Two Pence Post Office Mauritius,famously known as the Blue Penny Stamp, considered as a gem in the world of philately.The original stamp was issued in 1847 and engraved by Englishman Joseph Osmond Barnard.Mauritius is the fifth country in the world to have issued postage stamps.

The Rs5 and Re1 stamps show Crinum mauritianum and Tomato Rock Cod (cephalopholis sonnerati) respectively.

#461 Portugal...Thanks Luis!

The 0.80€ stamp was issued in October,2010 commemorating 100 years of the First Republic of Portugal.

On 1 February 1908, the king Carlos I of Portugal and his heir apparent, Prince Luis Filipe, were murdered in Lisbon. Under his rule, Portugal was twice declared bankrupt - on 14 June 1892, and again on 10 May 1902 - causing social turmoil, economic disturbances, protests, revolts and criticism of the monarchy. Manuel II of Portugal become the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October 1910 revolution, which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal.

The new regime formed a provisional government under the presidency of Teófilo Braga, a well-known writer. A new electoral law was issued giving the vote only to a restricted number of adult males. The provisional government presided over the election of a constituent assembly, which opened on June 19, 1911. The constitution was passed by the assembly on August 20, and the provisional government surrendered its authority a few days later (August 24) to the new president, Manuel José de Arriaga. Despite initial hopes that the republic would solve the massive problems inherited from the monarchy, Portugal soon became western Europe's most turbulent, unstable parliamentary regime.

Although a monarchist invasion led by Henrique de Paiva Couceiro in October 1911 was unsuccessful, the main danger to the new regime came from its internal divisions. For the moment, it was fairly united in support of abolishing the monarchy and disestablishing the Roman Catholic Church. The religious orders were expelled (October 8, 1910) and their property confiscated. New legislation banned the teaching of religion in schools and universities and annulled many religious holidays. Persecution of Catholics in the early years of the republic attracted international attention and brought the new political system into conflict with foreign diplomats, humanitarian organizations, and journalists. Indeed, though the government initiated advances in education, health, civic freedoms, and colonial development, positive results were overwhelmed by administrative instability, labour unrest, public violence, and military intervention in politics.

By 1912 the republicans were divided into Evolutionists (moderates), led by António José de Almeida; Unionists (centre party), led by Manuel de Brito Camacho; and Democrats (the leftist core of the original party), led by Afonso Costa. A number of prominent republicans had no specific party. The whirligig of republican political life offered little improvement on the monarchist regime, and in 1915 the army showed signs of restlessness. General Pimenta de Castro formed a military government and permitted the monarchists to reorganize, but a Democratic coup in May led to his arrest and consignment to the Azores, along with Machado Santos. Dominated by Costa's oratory, partisan press, and political machine, the Democrats' regime was in turn overthrown by another bloody military coup (December 1917), led by the former minister to Germany, Major Sidónio Pais.

The authoritarian, unstable “New Republic” of charismatic President Pais failed to pacify the feuding factions, and its collapse precipitated a brief civil war. Following Pais's assassination in Lisbon (December 14, 1918), republicans and monarchists fought a civil war (January 1919) in which the final armed effort to restore the monarchy failed, and political power was restored to the chastened Democrats. Four key tensions characterized the republic's troubled political system: (1) excessive factionalism, (2) the tendency of the factions to bear allegiance to personalities rather than to ideas, institutions, and the public interest, (3) disparity between the landholding patterns of the north (typified by minifundias—small subsistence farms) and the south (typified by latifundias—large estates worked by landless peasants), and (4) the concentration of economic development in Lisbon, at the expense of the provinces.

Though officially neutral, Portugal at the outbreak of World War I had proclaimed its adhesion to the English alliance (August 7, 1914) and on November 23 committed itself to military operations against Germany. On September 11 the first expedition left to reinforce the African colonies, and there was fighting in northern Mozambique, on the Tanganyika (now Tanzania) frontier, and in southern Angola, on the frontier of German South West Africa. In February 1916, in compliance with a request from Britain, Portugal seized German ships lying in Portuguese ports, and on March 9 Germany declared war on Portugal. A Portuguese expeditionary force under General Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu went to Flanders in 1917, and on April 9, 1918, the Germans mounted a major attack in the Battle of the Lys. Although the Allies won the war and Portugal's colonies were safeguarded, the 0.75 percent of the war indemnity paid by Germany to Portugal was scant compensation for the heavy costs incurred both in the field and at home, including the casualties of the African campaigns and the Western Front, the alienation of a portion of the army officer corps, crippling war debts to Britain, intense inflation, and a scarcity of food and fuel.

Former Evolutionist Almeida became the only president to complete his term during the First Republic, but the cycles of bankruptcy, corruption, public violence, and military insurrectionism continued. Finally, on May 28, 1926, the parliamentary republic was overthrown in a bloodless military coup that instituted what was to become western Europe's most long-lived authoritarian system.

#460 India...Thanks Rajendra!

The 5 INR stamp from the left was issued in 2010 honoring G.V.Chalam,who was an Indian activist and agricultural scientist.

G.V.Chalam was born to a middle class family in 1909.In November 1960, Chalam joined the Union Ministry of Food and Agriculture as the Deputy Agricultural Commissioner. In this capacity, he organized several seed production and training programmes in the country in collaboration with the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations.

As long as rice is the staple diet in India, Dr Chalam will be fondly and thankfully remembered as a hero who waged relentless battle for “Freedom from Hunger” for the poor of the country.

The next 5 INR stamp was issued in 2010 honoring Kumaragurupara Swamigal,who was a Tamil poet in the 17th century.

The 5 INR stamp on the right was issued in 2010 honoring Deshbandhu Gupta,who was a freedom fighter and supporter of Gandhiji in Non-cooperation movement. He was also a journalist and writer who wrote articles for the Bande Mataram newspaper of Lala Lajpat Rai. Later he the founder of the newspaper "Tej", he also owned the News Chronicle ( now known as Indian Express) along with Ram Nath Goenka.

The fourth 5 INR stamp was issued in 2010 honoring Robert Cladwell (1814–1891),who was a Colonial Era Evangelist Missionary who used native languages as a tool to proselytize the Colonised in Southern India.

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

#454 Algeria...Thanks Mounir!

The 38 Dinar stamp was issued this year celebrating 50 years of OPEC,which is the same theme with this post.

#453 Malaysia...Thanks Ronny!

These 3 stamps were issued on Sept.2010 depicting “Lifestyles of the Aboriginal People”.

#452 India...Thanks Krishnamurthy!

The stamp on the right upper corner was issued on Jan.25 2010 promoting Election Commission of India.

India is a constitutional democracy with a parliamentary system of government, and at the heart of the system is a commitment to hold regular, free and fair elections. These elections determine the composition of the government, the membership of the two houses of parliament, the state and union territory legislative assemblies, and the Presidency and vice-presidency.

Elections are conducted according to the constitutional provisions, supplemented by laws made by Parliament. The major laws are Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, the Representation of the People Act, 1951 which deals, in detail, with all aspects of conduct of elections and post election disputes. The Supreme Court of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of elections, the Election Commission has the residuary powers under the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner.

During the last 60 years ,The Election Commission Of India has conducted 15 General Elections to the Lok Sabha and 326 general elections to state Legislative Assemblies.

#451 United Kingdom...Thanks Ellison!

The 1st stamp on the left is from 2010 Medical Breakthrough issue illustrating Heart-regulating beta blockers synthesised by Sir James Black,1962.

Beta blockers are used for various indications, but particularly for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, cardioprotection after myocardial infarction (heart attack), and hypertension. Propranolol was the first clinically useful beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Invented by Sir James W. Black in the late 1950s, it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

#450 Slovakia...Thanks Robert!

The 1.10€ stamp was issued in March,2010 commemorating 400th Anniversary of the Žilina Synod.

Ideas of religious Reformation had quickly spread in the 16th century also in our country in Slovakia. After the patriciate of Eastern Slovak royal towns and Medieval mining towns, the Hungarian nobility gradually inclined to Reformation and so at the beginning of the 17th century, a significant part of today´s Slovakia territory was Protestant. At the Country council in 1609 Count Juraj Thurzo from Betlanovce (1567 – 1616) became the Hungarian Palatine, a follower of the reformation of Augsburg confession which he supported and efficiently promoted by means of his authority. An important milestone was the synod, convened for March 28 – 30, 1610 to Žilina under the patronage of the Palatine Thurzo. The Žilina Synod meant constitution and creation of separate church organisation of the Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession. The church congregations represented there defined basic symbolic issues and adopted the Formula of harmony. An important role in its preparation and wording of conclusions was played by Eliáš Láni, Bytča pastor and Thurzo´s advisor who was appointed to be one of the first Evangelical superintendents.

A unique authentic monument of those times is the Thurzo altar Speculum Justificationis dated in 1611. Monumental wooden altar from the chapel at the Orava castle preserved today in the Evangelical church of Augsburg confession in Necpaly, is extraordinary in its form and contents. The form of the altar unit with nine pictures is based on an older graphic model from the workshop of Jost Amman, a Nuremberg engraver and publisher, designed by the Evangelical theologian Caspar Melissander. Smaller panel paintings on fixed wings, in the dividing line and altar extension depict Bible scenes. Complicated composition of the spacious central painting painted on canvas is the visualisation of the key symbolical questions of which it is expression. Presented motives and notices in one composition interpret topics of excusing the sinful man in front of God for the faith itself in the Protestant perception.

The value of Thurzo altar is extraordinary – due to the personality of the customer as well as due to challenging and unique idea programme and last but not least, due to its artistic quality exceeding the average level of works of Protestant art of the 17th century in our country. Its iconography is the expression of professional and confessional identity of noble customer and apart from representation, it is also its "pictorial expression of faith".

#449 Slovakia...Thanks Robert!

The 0.70€ stamp was issued in March,2010 commemorating 750 years of birth of Matthew Czak of Trenčín.

The uncrowned king of Upper Hungary (today’s Slovakia) Matthew Czak was born in about 1260. His father Peter and his uncle Matthews held the office of Marshall Palatine during the reign of the incompetent king Ladislav IV. Cuman, and as a result, they were obtaining large properties in the south-western Slovakia. The young Matthew Czak became their sole heir. In the early 1290s he acted as a loyal courtier of Andrew III who appointed him a Palatine in 1296. However, shortly after, Matthew seized the King’s castle Trenčín under unclear circumstances and he rebuilt it to his residence. At the end of the 13th century, extending of his possessions was beyond control. Many nobles took willingly (but also under pressure) service with him. In the Přemysl-Anjou fight for a succession he first supported the Czech crown prince Wenceslas, who in 1302 bestowed him with counties Nitra and Trenčín. Toward the end of the following year he changed sides and became a supporter of Charles Robert, but despite his several promises he never recognized him as his king in public. In spite of this, Charles Robert appointed him a palatine in 1309 and at the beginning of the following year also treasurer (the person in charge of royal income). As Matthew Czak was visibly misusing these positions for his own benefit, the king deposed him from his office. In these times Matthew already acted as an independent ruler, and kept the same dignitaries as the king at his court in Trenčín. The bases of his power became a whole system of stone castles. He owned more than 60 stone castles, of which 50 in the area of today’s Slovakia. The status of Matthew was undermined to a certain extent by the loss of a part of his army in the Battle of Rozhanovce in 1312. However, in 1315 he managed to beat back the attack of the Czech king Jan Luxemburg on the castle of Holíč. Later, due to his older age, he was not developing any activities of a greater importance and determined Stephen Czech from the family of Moravian Sternbergs as his heir. He died naturally on March 18th, 1321 in Trenčín castle. King’s army took possession of all his castles in stages. His contemporaries called his possessions "Terra Matthei" (The Land of Matthew). Its territorial scope corresponds almost precisely with the territory belonging to Pribina’s Principate in Nitra.

#448 Slovakia...Thanks Robert!

The 0.40€ stamp on the left was issued on Apr.16,2010 honoring DR. MILAN HODŽA (1878 Sučany –1944 Clearwater, USA),the most significant Slovak journalist, politician and political scientist, Czechoslovakian statesman of European importance of the first half of the 20th century.

A son of a Slovak patriot, Evangelical priest O. Hodža and a nephew of Michal Miloslav Hodža. He obtained his university education by studying law, philosophy and history at universities in Budapest, Cluj and in Vienna. He had wide knowledge and actively spoke seven languages. He entered the political scene as an already known journalist. He wrote for several newspapers, he founded and edited Slovenský denník (Slovak Daily) on his own, and later Slovenský týždenník (Slovak Weekly) (1903 – 1918). He continued in political and journalist work of Ľ. Štúr. In 1905 – 1910 he acted as a member of the Hungarian parliament, stood against Hungarian nationalism, fought for civil rights and economic progress in co-operation with representatives of non-Hungarian nations (mainly Serbians, Croatians and Romanians). He got into high politics thanks to his contacts with the throne successor Franz Ferdinand and his attempts to federalize the empire. During World War I he became the leading figure of the so-called Vienna Group of Slovaks who started to cooperate with the Czech Resistance with the aim to build a common state. He participated on the Declaration of the Slovak Nation in Turč. st. Martin in October 1918 and became a member of the Slovak National Council. After the formation of Czechoslovakia, he continued in his political activity with short breaks until September 1938 as one of prominent pro-governmental agrarian politicians. He was the Minister for Unification of laws twice, the Minister of Agriculture twice (1922 – 1926; 1932 – 1935); the Minister of Education (1926 – 1929) and the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1935 – 1936). In 1935 he became the Prime Minister as a first Slovak and remained in this position until September 1936, when the government resigned. At the end of 1938 he went to exile (Switzerland, France, Great Britain, and USA). In 1940 he founded the Slovak National Council in Paris. He spent the last years of his life in the USA (1941 – 1944), cooperated with American Slovaks on renewal of a democratic, nationally just Czecho-Slovakia, with equality of Slovaks and with a vision of a federation in Central Europe. He also worked here on his most significant political work called Federation in Central Europe, published in English in 1941. Historical and political studies and studies on political science were a part of his work. They were published in 7 volumes under the name Články, reči a štúdie. On June 27, 2002 his remains were transported to Slovakia and buried in the National Cemetery in Martin.

The other two 0.40€ stamps were both issued in 2010 in the Sights of Our Homeland series featuring Castle Betliar and Castle of Topoľčianky.

Originally a hunting castle, with its permanent specialized exhibition of Housing Culture of the Nobility in the 18th and 19th Century, the Castle Betliar has belonged to the administration of the Slovak National Museum – Museum Betliar since 1996. From the point of view of attractiveness, it belongs to the most visited ones and from the point of view of monument preservation, it belongs to the most preserved cultural historical monuments of Slovakia. It has been included into the network of Slovak museums since 1952. The origins of the castle history date back to the first half of the 15th century and they are connected with the Hungarian family of Bebek. František Bebek built a small fortification in the period of the approaching Turkish threat. The greatest construction for the castle was noted in the period of the Transylvanian-Hungarian noble family of Andrássy which played an important part not only in the life of Gemer but the entire Hungary. The castle experienced several reconstructions over some centuries. The biggest and most extensive was the reconstruction of 1880 – 1886 under the control of the count Emanuel Andrássy and the castle obtained its present look. Previous owners furnished the castle with luxury and gathered a lot of works of art and craft there creating a present-day precious artistic and historic collection fund of the museum. What is really valuable is the movables of the exhibit of domestic and foreign provenance dated in the 16th to 19th centuries. Interiors are supplemented with gallery collections, ceramics collections, china and porcelain from various European manufactures. The greatest treasure of the Betliar Castle is the historical library founded by the count Leopold Andrássy in the mid-18th century. It currently contains 15 000 volumes of historic literature. Around the Castle there is a large natural and landscape historic park with the area of 57 ha which belongs to the most preserved and most precious parks in Slovakia. The park was included by the international committee ICOMOS/IFLA (International Council on Monuments and Sites) into the list of artistically and culturally valuable parks of the world recorded by UNESCO in 1978. In 1988 – 1994 the Castle was reconstructed as far as building and interior. In 1994 it was awarded the prestigious international award EUROPA NOSTRA for its example monument conservation.

Picturesque scenery of a large English-style park with a monumental classicist chateau is situated in the northern part of the municipality Topoľčianky. Archaeological research was carried out in 1990 in the courtyard of the chateau and uncovered the foundations of the oldest stone architecture from the 13th century. Already in the mid-16h century Topoľčianky was in the reach of Turkish raids and as a result, it was burnt down many times and the fortification was damaged. Ján Topoľčiansky, a lord of the chateau, also known as “Turk Fighter”, had the chateau rebuilt on its original foundations The last major reconstruction of the renaissance chateau was made halfway through the 17th century by the Earl Ladislav Rákoczi, together with his wife Elisabeth Rákoczi, born Bánffy who had part of the chateau rebuilt into a chateau chapel in 1662 in the north-western bastion. Since 1686, the chapel has been a significant sacred site in Slovakia. Halfway through the 18th century the chateau and the entire estate were mastered by the Keglevich earls who owned it up to 1890. At the beginning of the 19th century, the third earl of the Keglevich family, Ján Keglevich, ordered the southern renaissance wing to be demolished and replaced it in 1818 – 1825 with a classicist tract built. This classicist wing of the chateau is considered to be the nicest and cleanest demonstration of classicism in Slovakia.
The last noble owner of the castle was the Archduke Joseph August Habsburg with his wife the Archduchess Augusta after 1890. This couple had lived in the castle until 1918 when the first Czechoslovak Republic was established. The castle was nationalized and became the summer residence of the Presidents of the Republic. The first President of the Czechoslovak Republic, T. G. Masaryk, visited Topoľčianky almost every year during his presidency. Klement Gottwald was the last president to stay in the pleasant environment of the Topoľčianky chateau. In 1957 the Castle came under the administration of ROH for the purpose of superior holiday and in 1970 it was declared to be the National cultural monument for its beauty, artistic and historic value.
At present the castle is owned by the Joint Property Fund of the Trade Unions in the Slovak Republic (JMF ZOO v SR). The classicistic wing is used as a museum. Three renaissance wings of the chateau are currently used as a hotel with a restaurant.

#447 Argentina...Thanks Vivian!

Monday, October 11, 2010

#446 Italy...Thanks Martirazzo!

The 0.60€ stamp on the left was issued in 2009 with the theme "Measures to prevent and fight fires". At the top is a lush, green natural landscape with a deer peeking out from it; at the bottom is the same landscape after the fire.

The 0.60€ stamp in the middle was issued in 2009 for the “Le istituzioni” (Institutions) series, dedicated to the Grenadier Corps of Sardinia, on the 350th anniversary of its foundation.Within an ornamental frame, the stamp shows a member of the Grenadier Corps of Sardinia wearing the official 1659 uniform, flanked by a row of Grenadiers wearing the present-day ceremonial uniform.

The 0.60€ stamp on the right was also issued in 2009 in the “Made in Italy” series dedicated to San Daniele ham, on the 5th centenary of the first documented reference to the product.

#445 Poland...Thanks Piotr!

These 2 stamps are from 2010/09 Minerals of Poland issue showing Gypsum and Sphalerite.

Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as early as the Permian age.Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near surface exposures. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur.

Sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. It consists largely of zinc sulfide in crystalline form but almost always contains variable iron. When iron content is high it is an opaque black variety, marmatite. It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and other sulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite. Miners have also been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende and black-jack.

#444 Korea...Thanks Park!

This set of 4 stamps, as a part of the effort to "establish our cultural identity in a precise way", was issued in Sept. 2010 depicting story of "Jumong": King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo (58-19 BC) or Dongmyeongseongwang (東明聖王),who was the founding monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

According to “Samgukyusa” (the historic chronology of the Three Kingdoms written by the Venerable Ilyeon) and “Samguksagi” (the historical record of the Three Kingdoms written by Kim Busik), the story of Goguryeo’s Jumong can be summarized as follows: King Geumwa met a woman at Ubalsu in Mt. Taebaek and asked who she was. She replied, “I am Yuhwa, a daughter of Habaek, the god of rivers. Haemosu, the son of the Lord of Heaven, seduced me into making love with him. Then, he left and never returned. My parents scolded me for marrying even without a matchmaker, and exiled me to Ubalsu.”
King Geumwa locked her into a room only to see the sun following and shining on her. After this, she showed signs of pregnancy and laid an egg. The king discarded the egg, but it was protected by animals. The king retrieved the egg but when he was unable to break the egg, the king gave it back to Yuhwa. She wrapped it with a cloth and put it in a warm spot. Out of this egg, a boy hatched. This boy was named Jumong and he was clever and boasted a sturdy build and commanding presence. At the age of only 7, he was far ahead of other common people. He himself made bows and arrows and he invariably hit the targets 100% of the time. King Geumwa had 7 sons, who played with Jumong all the time but all of them lagged behind Jumong in their skills and talents. As the sons and servants of King Geumwa were intent on harming Jumong, he fled with three people including Oi. They reached Eumhosu but found that they wouldn’t be able to cross the water. Jumong shouted toward the water that he was the son of the lord of heaven and the grandson of Habaek, asking for a way to cross. In response, numerous fish and soft-shelled turtles formed a bridge, allowing them to cross to safety. Jumong and his followers reached Jolboncheon. Charmed by this area’s fertile land and rugged mountain terrain, he set up his capital there. Too busy to build a palace, he built a thatched cottage instead and lived there. He named his country Goguryeo and took “Go” as his surname.

Goguryeo was the largest country among those ever built on Korea. And it was a powerful country that boldly stood up against Su and Dang ? two Chinese dynasties that unified China during the era concurrent to Goguryeo, rather than a mere regional government established by a minority race, as claimed by China. Faced with Chinese-led global order, Goguryeo warded off China’s ambition to enter into Eastern lands, and by securing the Yodong Peninsula, provided the time and space for Silla and Baekje to grow. Overall, Goguryeo served as a shield against China, ensuring that the Korean people could live safely on the Korean peninsula.